South Africa's gold industry has been the principal focus of black economic empowerment, resulting in a changing ownership structure. With the increase in the price of gold and the worldwide economic slowdown, investment in gold has increased, with investors seeking safe haven investments. Demand for gold also increased in 2009, particularly from India and China.
South Africa is estimated, by US Geological Survey, to have 6000 metric tons of gold reserves. 95% of South Africa's gold mines are underground operations, reaching depths of over 3.8 km. Coupled with declining grades, increased depth of mining and a slide in the gold price, costs have begun to rise, resulting in the steady fall in production. The future of the gold industry in South Africa therefore depends on increased productivity.
South Africa's enormous gold ore reserves represent a substantial part of the world’s reserves. The main gold producing area is concentrated on the Archaean Witwatersrand Basin. The Witwatersrand basin, which has been mined for more than 100 years and has produced more than 41 000 t of gold, remains the greatest unmined source of gold in the world. Major new projects, new technology, new approaches to the organisation of work, better labour relations and some commercial innovations are starting to reshape this industry.
South Africa does have other smaller gold producers outside of the Witwatersrand, in the form of Archaean greenstone belts. The main gold producing greenstone belts are the Barberton Greenstone Belt and the Kraaipan greenstone belt. The Barberton greenstone belt is situated in the Mpumalanga province, just north of Swaziland. The Kraaipan belt is located west of Johannesburg, near Kuruman. Other smaller belts exist in the Northern Province, but have been worked sporadically.
Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. There are several techniques by which gold may be extracted from the earth. . Gold is a precious metal mined to create practical and ornamental pieces of work. Refined gold ore can be melted, poured and cast into almost any shape to make jewelry. There are numerous industrial applications for gold, as well. Many electronics and medical devices rely on gold’s ability to conduct electricity and resist corrosion. Here’s how to identify gold ore.
Gold ore is crushed in order to maximize the surface area of the gold ore for greater gold recovery. Gold ore is loaded into the primary crusher ( jaw crusher ) for initial sizing. The jaw crusher can break the gold ore rocks into 150mm or 6 inch (take PE 750 for an example ), then belt conveyor will transport the crushed gold ore to the screening plant, which runs the gold ore through vibrating screens to size the material. Oversized rock is sent via conveyor to the secondary crushers. Secondary crushing consists of impact crusher and cone crusher.When crushed to ¾ inch diameter or smaller, lime is added to the ore to increase the effectiveness of the process solution by raising the PH. The gold ore is then conveyed to the load out bin. Trucks drive under the load out bin to be filled with crushed ore for delivery to the leach facility.
The mainstream gold ore dressing technology is generally through the ore dressing equipment (crusher) to broken gold ore, and then sent into the gold beneficiation (ball mill) to be smashed and grinded. After the gravity separation and flotation, concentrate ore and tailings are extracted, and then by using chemical methods and final smelting, the finished product eventually become gold.
Gold ore is crushed in order to maximize the surface area of the gold ore for greater gold recovery. Gold ore is loaded into the primary crusher ( jaw crusher ) for initial sizing. The jaw crusher can break the gold ore rocks into 150mm or 6 inch (take PE 750 for an example ), then belt conveyor will transport the crushed gold ore to the screening plant, which runs the gold ore through vibrating screens to size the material. Oversized rock is sent via conveyor to the secondary crushers. Secondary crushing consists of impact crusher and cone crusher.
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